Generally, there is a distinction between private and public facilities. 
Filming on private property as well as on private & public facilities (e.g. museums, housing cooperatives etc.) always requires approval. Approval can only be gained through the owner. Depending on the location, this can either be a private individual, a cooperative, an association, a foundation, the city, the district, the municipality, the county or the state.

If the private owner is part of a community of owners (e.g. within an apartment building), the community also has to give its consent. 
If a private individual is simply a tenant at the location, the approval of the owner (e.g. property management or landlord) must be obtained as well.

Here are some examples of public facilities:
(Points of contact are usually the press offices)

Public areas and places with different original purposes (such as museums, hospitals, schools, military sites etc.) are essential to film productions.
Filming in these locations is usually difficult but not impossible. It requires major coordination processes, which is why sufficient lead times should be allowed for. 
In difficult cases, it is recommended to allocate a person on site who will take over the supervision of the film work. The additional costs should be taken into account when renting the motif. Some film productions also allot security guards.

Communication is key!
An open conversation to find suitable solutions for all parties involved is always the right way to ensure successful filming.

From location to film location: location search and inspection

Location scouts and set designers are generally in charge of finding the appropriate filming locations for a production.
In the first instance, they browse through various location databases. Ideally, the listings and photos in location databases are expressive enough for location scouts to want to organise an in person visit to inspect the location.
Before such a site visit can take place, and only after consultation with the director, the location scouts contact the location provider to discuss basic facts (such as the extent of the filming, the planned timeframe, etc.).
Only after this initial conversation, an in-person appointment is arranged during which the location scouts take photos and notes for the production.
Following this, the location scouts present the results of their search to the film's core team (director, camera, production design, production). If the location is to their liking, another site tour (the so-called recce) is arranged for which the rest of the core team will be present. 
A decision will then be made as to whether the filming location is suitable and negotiations on the rental agreement can begin with the location provider.

Location rental agreement

In the case of a location rental agreement, both parties have the option of providing a draft. You can find a sample of a location rental agreement contract here or on the website of the Federal Association of Locationscouts (BVL). (In German only)

If you are only renting the location, you need permission to sublet to film productions from the owner, if necessary from the property management. If you do not have permission, please inform the film production. But ideally, you have permission to film.


Location rental

The amount of the location rental is at the discretion of the respective location provider. Public location providers do not usually have profit-making intentions and private location providers also adapt their pricing as flexibly as possible to the project and its scope.
A distinction is usually made between the following categories and price ranges:
A: Student film, documentary film, short film
B: Commercial film, image film, (music) video clip, photo production
C: TV film, series, and cinema film national, international (no, low or big budget)